How are skills defined?
Skill is most commonly measured through education.1 The term “low skill” tends to apply to those with less than a high school education, “middle skill” to those who have more than a high school education and less than a college degree, and “high skill” for those with a college degree and more. Skill, however, is not only reflected by education–there are physical skills, soft skills, and emotional skills which contribute to meaningful employment.
The National Skills Coalition highlights the particular need for middle skills in their factsheet Illinois’ Forgotten Middle, one of their many state snapshots. Middle-skill jobs are those that require more than a High School education, but less than a four-year college degree.
Middle-skill jobs make up 53% of the Illinois labor market, but only 42% of the state’s workers are trained for middle-skill jobs.2
The interactive, multi-media article Where the jobs are: The new blue collar by USA Today describes where some of those middle-skill jobs are, and the skills and training needed to fill them. Another great resource to learn about the availability of middle skill jobs across the nation is goodjobsdata.org.
Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE):
The Illinois Report Card site (the board’s interactive data clearinghouse) is an engaging, dynamic resource with information on student demographics, performance, school funding and much more. All visuals come with a helpful explanation of the data, along with context, and additional resources for research. Among the vast amount of information are data about:
ISBE also maintains a Report Card page and Topics page, containing numerous sources of information about graduation rates and performance in Illinois public schools. Following are select resources from the site:
- The 2019 Illinois State Report Card is an overview of state performance and graduation rates.
- The Annual Statistical Report is a 290 page document which details finances and county and district level enrollment information. It is not a source for performance data beyond dropouts and attendance.
Working Poor Families Project:
The Working Poor Families Project collects data on educational attainment in all 50 states. Their full yearly data release contains indicators related to education, income, employment, and other topics as well. Here are some highlights from their data on education and skills status of adults. (Source: Working Poor Families Project, 2017, Chapter 2. See more about this on our Poverty page.)
- In South Lawndale (a majority Latino community), 46.2% of adults 25 and older have less than a high school diploma or equivalent. (2015)
- In Gage Park (also majority Latino), 39.1% of adults 25 and over have less than a high school diploma or equivalent. (2015)
- In Chicago on average, 15.9% of adults 25 and over have less than a high school diploma or equivalent. (2015)
Literacy and English Proficiency
For many in Illinois and the United States more broadly, low English language skills remain a barrier to employment. Here are a few figures, as well as further sources of data on literacy, indicators of literacy, and English proficiency.
In Illinois, 32.3% of working poor families have at least one parent that has trouble with English.(Working Poor Families data Chapter 1, Table 1.A.8b. Read more about the Working Poor Families data on our Poverty page.)
To the extent that school performance in reading is an indicator of literacy, assessments of reading skills are informative. The Illinois Report Card contains reading proficiency statistics for Illinois students. The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) has data on reading proficiency nationally.
Compared to other states, English Language Learners in Illinois fall behind their Native English Speaker counterparts by much wider margins.(See Table: Average National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading scale scores of 4th- and 8th-graders in public schools and percentage scoring at or above selected reading achievement levels, by English language learner (ELL) status and state: 2013.)
NCES also reports national literacy data, including measures of quantitative literacy.(Unfortunately, literacy is not a well-measured variable, and another in-depth analysis of this type has not be completed since 2003.)
44% of Hispanic American adults and 24% of Black American adults have below basic literacy skills, compared to 7% of White American adults.(Specifically measured “prose literacy” using continuous text prose samples. Source: 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL). See full data table for more. )
Other information from NCES includes Home Literacy Activities statistics (examples of home literacy activities include reading to children or bringing them to a library), and the report Literacy, Numeracy, and Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments Among U.S. Adults.(See report page for more.)
In November, 2014 Literacy Works, a Chicago organization dedicated to improving adult literacy, created the handbook Transitions to Education and Training. This resource is designed to help workforce professionals guide lower skilled adults to free and affordable education and training. Along with other helpful material, the handbook includes:
- Suggestions for communicating with clients to effectively encourage further education.
- Various program options for continuing education.
- Strategies for identifying quality programs and avoiding scams.